High Yield

Most common ones in Medicine & Surgery

 List of the most common causes, most common pathogens, most common disorders, etc.

Most Common Primary Tumor arising from bone in adults


Most Common Adrenal Medullary Tumor

Pheochromocytoma: 5 P's: ↑ Pressure; Pain (Headache); Perspiration; Palpitations; Pallor/Diaphoresis

Most Common Adrenal Medullary Tumor



Most Common Agent of severe viral encephalitis

Herpes simplex

Most Common Aggressive lung tumor

Small cell or oat cell

Most Common Associated with gallstones


Most Common Atrial Septal Defect

Ostium Secundum Type

Most Common Bacterial Meningitis of new borns

E. coli / Group BStrep

Most Common Bacterial Meningitis of adults

Strep pneumoniae & in young adults = Neisseria meningitidis

Most Common Bacterial Meningitis of elderly

Neisseria meningitidis

Most Common Benign epithelial tumor of oral mucosa


Most Common Benign fallopian tube tumor


Most Common Benign ovarian tumor

Mature(Native) Teratoma = benign dermatoid

Most Common Benign tumor of soft tissue


Most Common Benign tumor of the breast<25yoa


Most Common Benign tumor of the liver


Most Common Benign tumor of the vulva


Most Common Benign uterine tumor

Leiomyoma: estrogen sinsitive: changes size during pregnancy & menopause

Most Common Bone Tumors

Metasteses from Breast & Prostate

Most Common Brain Tumor – Child

Medulloblastoma (cerebellum)

Most Common Brain Tumor –Adult

Astrocytoma (including Glioblastoma Multiforme) then: mets, meningioma, Schwannoma

Most Common Breast Carcinoma

Invasive Duct Carcinoma

Most Common Breast Mass

Fibrocystic Change: premenopausic women (Carcinoma is the most common in post-menopausal women)

Most Common Bug in Acute Endocarditis

Staph aureus

Most Common Bug in Epiglottitis


Most Common Bug in GI Tract

Bacteroides (2nd – E. coli)

Most Common Bug in IV drug user bacteremia / pneumonia

Staph aureus

Most Common Bug in Otitis Media & Sinusitis in Kids

Strep. Pneumoniae

Most Common Bug in PID

N. Gonnorrhoeae

Most Common Bug in Subacute Endocarditis

Strep Viridans

Most Common Bug in debilitated,hospitalized pneumonia pt


Most Common CA of urinary collecting system

Transitional cell CA (assoc. w/ benzidine; ╬▓naphthylamine; analine dyes; long term txt w/ cyclophosphamide)

Most Common Cardiac 1ry Tumor – Adults

Myxoma: “Ball Valve”

Most Common Cardiac 1ry Tumor – Child

Rhabdomyoma – associated w/ Tuberous sclerosis

Most Common Cardiac Tumor – Adults


Most Common Cardiomyopathy

Dilated (Congestive) Cardiomyopathy: Alcohol, BeriBeri, Cocaine use, Coxsackie B, Doxorubicin; Systolic Dysfunction

Most Common Cause of Addison's

Autoimmune (2nd - – infection)

Most Common Cause of Bacterial Diarrhea

Campylobacter jejuni

Most Common Cause of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

21-Hydroxylase Deficiency: NaCl lost & Hypotension (then, 11- NaCl retention & HTN)

Most Common Cause of Congenital Malformation

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

Most Common Cause of Cushings

Exogenous Steroid Therapy (then, 1ry ACTH, Adrenal Adenoma, Ectopic ACTH)

Most Common Cause of Death b/t 24-44 yoa


Most Common Cause of Death in Alzheimer pts


Most Common Cause of Death in Diabetics


Most Common Cause of Death in SLE pts.

Lupus Nephropathy Type IV (Diffuse Proliferative) = Renal Disease

Most Common Cause of Death in premature

NRDS = hyaline membrane disease

Most Common Cause of Death w/ SLE

Renal failure

Most Common Cause of Dementia

Most common - Alzheimer's

2nd common - Multi-Infarct Dementia

Most Common Cause of Dwarfism


Most Common Cause of Food poisoning

Staph aureus

Most Common Cause of Glomerulonephritis

IgA Nephropathy = Berger's Disease

Most Common Cause of Hematosalpynga

Ectopic pregnancy

Most Common Cause of Hypoparathyroidism


Most Common Cause of Hypothyroidism

Corrective surgery I31 treatment

Most Common Cause of Infection in Burn Pts


Most Common Cause of Kidney infections

E. coli

Most Common Cause of Liver disease in US

Alcohol consumption

Most Common Cause of Lobar Pneumonia

Strep. Pneumoniae

Most Common Cause of Malignancy in children

Acute leukemia

Most Common Cause of Mental retardation


Most Common Cause of Mental retardation(2nd most common)

Fragile X

Most Common Cause of NaCl loss and Hypotension

21 hydroxylase deficiency

Most Common Cause of Non-Ghonococcal Urethritis

Chlamydia trichomonas

Most Common Cause of Osteomyelitis in IV Drug Users


Most Common Cause of PID

N. ghonorrhea

Most Common Cause of Pneumonia in Cystic Fibrosis


Most Common Cause of Portal cirrhosis


Most Common Cause of Preventable Blindness

Chlamydia (serotypes A,B,Ba,C)

Most Common Cause of Pulmonary HTN


Most Common Cause of SIADH

Small Cell Carcinoma of the Lung

Most Common Cause of Secondary


Renal disease

Most Common Cause of Viral Pneumonia

RSV – infants

Parainfluenza – kids

Influenza virus – adults

Adeno virus – military recruits

Most Common Cause of a Solitary Brain Abscess

A. Israelli

Most Common Cause of breast lumps

CA of the breast

Most Common Cause of chronic endometriosis


Most Common Cause of secondary HTN

Renal Disease

Most Common Causes of Pernicious Anemia

Chronic atropic gastritis = no production of intrinsic factor

Most Common Causes of UT obstruction in man

BP Hyperplasia

Most Common Chromosomal Disorder


Most Common Common Tumor of Appendix


Cardinoid Tumor : flushing, diarrhea, bronchospasm, R heart valvular lesions

Txt: Methysergide(5HT antagonis)

Most Common Complication of COPD

Pulmonary infections

Most Common Congeital Cardiac Anomaly

VSD (membranous>muscular)

Most Common Congenital Early Cyanosis

Tetralogy of Fallot =right to left shunt

Most Common Congenital GIT Anomaly

Meckel's Diverticulum: persistence of vitelline duct/yolk sac stalk

Most Common Coronary Artery Thrombosis

LAD artery: MI

Most Common Demyelinating Disease

Multiple Sclerosis: (Charcot Triad = nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech)

Periventricular plaques w/ ↓ Oligodenrocytes

↑ IgG in CSF, Optic Neuritis, MLF Syndorme = Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia, bladder incontinence

Most Common Dental Tumor


Most Common Dietary Deficiency


Most Common Disease of the Breast

Fibrocystic disease

Most Common Disseminated Opportunistic Infection in AIDS

CMV (Pneumocystis carinii is most common overall)

Most Common Esophageal Cancer


Most Common Fallopian Tube Malignancy


Most Common Fatal Genetic Defect in Caucasians

Cystic Fibrosis (chromosome 7q)

Most Common Female Tumor


Most Common Form of Amyloidosis

Immunologic (Bence Jones protein in multiple myeloma is also called the Amyloid Light Chain)

Most Common Form of Tularemia


Most Common Germ Cell Tumor of Testes

Seminoma (analogous to dysgerminoma of ovaries)

Most Common Gynecological Finding

Endometrial CA

Most Common Gynecological Malignancy

Endometrial Carcinoma

Most Common Heart Murmur

Mitral Valve Prolapse

Most Common Heart Valve in Bacterial Endocarditis


Most Common Heart Valve in Bacterial Endocarditis in IV drug users


Most Common Heart Valve involved in Rheumatic Fever

Mitral then Aortic

Most Common Hereditary Bleeding Disorder

Von Willebrand's Disease

Most Common Hormone secreted in Pituitary Adenoma


Most Common Immunodeficiency

IgA Deficiency

Most Common Inherited disease of the Kidney

Adult polycystic kidney disease: associated w/ polycystic liver, Berry aneurysms, Mitral prolapse APD1 – chromosome 16

Most Common Intelligence Test

Stanford Binet (ages 6 & under)

WIPSI (ages 4-6)

WISK-R (for ages 6-17)

WAIS-R (for > 17 yoa)

Most Common Intracranial tumor in adults

Glioblastoma mulitforme

Most Common Islet Tumor

Insulinoma = ╬▓ cell tumor

Most Common Liver 1ry Tumor


Most Common Liver Disease

Alcoholic Liver Disease

Most Common Location of Adenocarcinoma

of the Pancreas

Head (99%)

Most Common Location of Adult Brain


Above Tentorium

Most Common Location of Childhood Brain Tumors

Below Tentorium

Most Common Lung Tumor, malignant or benign


Most Common Lung Tumor, primary or secondary


Most Common Lysosomal Storage Disease


Most Common Malignancy Vulva

Squamous cell CA

Most Common Malignancy in Women

Lung (2nd breast)

Most Common Malignancy of the Larynx

Glottic CA (squamous cell)

Most Common Malignancy of the Small



Most Common Malignant Eye Tumor in Kids


Most Common Malignant Tumor of the Liver

Hepatocellular CA

Most Common Mental Problem in Males

Specific phobia

Most Common Metabolite seen w/ Pheochromocytoma

VMA: vanillylmandelic acid (NE metabolite)

Most Common Motor Neuron Disease


Most Common Muscular Dystrophy

Duchenne's: Dystrophin deletion. Presents <5yoa weakness at pelvic girdles w/ upward progression

Most Common Nasal Tumor

Squamous cell CA

Most Common Neoplasm of the West

Adeno CA of the rectum and/or colon

Most Common Neoplasm – Child


Most Common Neoplasm – Child (2nd most common)

Medulloblastoma of brain (cerebellum)

Most Common Neoplastic Polyp

Tubular adenoma

Most Common Nephrotic Syndrome in Adults

Membranous Glomerulonephritis

Most Common Nephrotic Syndrome in Children

Minimal Change (Lipoid Nephrosis) Disease (responds well to steroid txt)

Most Common Non Hodgkin's Lymphoma

Follicular small clear cell

Most Common Number of Deaths per year in

Lung CA

Most Common Opportunistic infection in AIDS


Most Common Ovarian Malignancy

Serous Cystadenocarcinoma

Most Common Ovarian Tumor


Most Common Pancreatic Tumor

Adeno (usually in the head)

Most Common Paraphilia


Most Common Patient with ALL / CLL / AML / CML

ALL – Child / CLL – Adult over 60 / AML - Adult over 60 / CML – Adult 35-50

Most Common Patient with Goodpasture's

Young male

Most Common Patient with Reiter's


Most Common Pituitary Tumor

Prolactinoma (2nd – Somatotropic “Acidophilic” Adenoma)

Most Common Place for Peptic Ulcer Disease

Lesser curvuture in antrum – associated w/ blood group O

Most Common Place for Primary Squamous Cell CA of esophagus

Mid 1/3

Most Common Pneumonia

Strep. Pneumoniae

Most Common Primary Benign Salivary Tumor

Pleomorphic Adenoma (Mixed) – 90% localized to the parotid

Most Common Primary Hyperparathyroidism

Adenomas (followed by: hyperplasia, then carcinoma)

Most Common Primary Malignancy of Bone


Most Common Primary Malignancy of Small Intestine


Most Common Pt. with Hodgkin's

Young Male (except Nodular Sclerosis type – Female)

Most Common Pt. with Minimal Change Disease

Young Child

Most Common Renal Malignancy

Renal cell CA

Most Common Renal Malignancy of Early


Wilm's tumor (neohroblastoma) – chromosome 11p

Most Common Salivary Tumor

Pleomorphic adenoma

Most Common Secondary Hyperparathyroidism

Hypocalcemia of Chronic Renal Failure

Most Common Severe Shigella


Most Common Sexually Transmitted Disease

Chlamydia (sero types D-K)

Most Common Shigella Type

S. Sonnei

Most Common Site of Diverticula

Sigmoid Colon

Most Common Site of Embolic Occlusion

Middle cerebral aa: contralateral paralysis; aphasias; motor & sensory loss

Most Common Site of Metastasis

Regional Lymph Nodes

Most Common Site of Metastasis (2nd most common)


Most Common Sites of Atherosclerosis

Abdominal aorta > coronary > popliteal > carotid

Most Common Skin CA of Fair Skinned People

Malignant melanoma

Most Common Skin Cancer

Basal Cell Carcinoma

Most Common Skin tumor

Basal cell CA

Most Common Small Intestine Congenital Anomaly

Meckel's diverticulum

Most Common Stomach Cancer

Adeno – associated w/ blood group A

Most Common Testicular Tumor

Seminoma = malignant painless testes growth

Most Common Thyroid Anomaly

Seminoma = malignant painless testes growth

Most Common Thyroid Anomaly

Thryoglossal duct cyst

Most Common Thyroid CA

Papillary CA

Most Common Tracheoesophageal Fistula

Lower esophagus joins trachea / upper esophagus – blind pouch – polyhydramnios association

Most Common Tumor in men <20

Germ cell tumor

Most Common Tumor of Infancy

Benign vascular tumor = port wine stain = Hemangioma

Most Common Tumor of the Stomach >50 years of age

CA of stomach (adeno CA)

Most Common Type of Hodgkin's

Mixed Cellularity (versus: lymphocytic predominance, lymphocytic depletion, nodular sclerosis)

Most Common Type of Non-Hodgkin's

Follicular, small cleaved

Most Common Type of Portal Cirrhosis


Most Common Type of Soft Tissue Tumor of Childhood


Most Common Urethritis

N. ghonorrhea

Most Common Vasculitis (of medium & small arteries)

Temporal Arteritis (branch of Carotid Artery)

Most Common Viral Encephalitis


Most Common Warm Antibody

Most common form of immune hemolytic anemia

 IgG auto antibodies to RBC

 See spherocytosis; (+) Coombs’ test; complication to CLL

Most Common Worm Infection in US

Pinworm (2nd – Ascaris)

Most Common Worst Prognosis in Thyroid Case

Follicular CA

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