Acute Flaccid Paralysis

History

  • duration of weakness (ie. hours to days to weeks/months)
  • classify as rapidly progressive, acute, subacute or chronic
  • mode of progression (eg. onset in arms, "ascending paralysis")
  • sensory involvement (numbness, tingling, loss of balance esp. in dark, pain/burning)
  • bulbar involvement (change in voice or swallowing)
  • facial weakness (trouble chewing, sucking with straw, blowing)
  • extraocular muscle weakness (diplopia) or ptosis
  • respiratory involvement (dyspnea, orthopnea)
  • bladder or bowel involvement
  • autonomic involvement (diarrhea, orthostatic dizziness, urinary retention, palpitations)
  • systemic symptoms (fever, weight loss, rash, joint pain)
  • recent illness or immunization (diarrheal or respiratory tract infection, oral polio vaccine)
  • recent travel (out of the country, to woods [tick bites])
  • precipitating factors (exertion, carbohydrate loading - with periodic paralyzes)
  • fluctuation in weakness (eg. diurnal variation, fatiguability in myasthenia)
  • drug or toxin exposure (canned or 'bad' food, pesticides, 'statins', lead exposure)
  • family history (porphyria)

    Physical Examination

    Distribution and Degree of weakness
    - MRC grading (0 to 5 out of 5)
    - Examine extraocular muscles (? ptosis), facial muscles, neck, arms & legs
    - Describe the pattern of weakness (eg.paraparesis, faciobrachial, multifocal) if possible
    - Assess for fatiguability

    Sensory loss
    - to particular modality (vibration / proprioception vs. pain / temperature)
    - is there a sensory level?

    Reflexes 
    - are the DTRs lost (ie. areflexic), depressed preserved, or brisk

    Autonomic testing
    -postural vitals, abnormal sweating, pupillary response, ileus

    Skin: 
    - the rash of Lyme disease (erythema chronicum migrans), lines on nails with arsenic poisoning (Mee's lines), ticks, photosensitivity, Gottron's papules (on extensor surfaces) & heliotrope discoloration over eyelids,

    Spinal tenderness (with epidural abscess or hematoma, spinal tumor)

    Straight leg raise (radiculopathy)

    General Patterns

    1. Flaccid symmetric quadriparesis (+/- bulbar and respiratory involvement) with areflexia and minimal to profound sensory loss (but often sensory symptoms)- Acute neuropathy or polyradiculopathy (esp. Guillain-Barre syndrome)
    2. Symmetric proximal muscle weakness without sensory symptoms or signs and with preserved reflexes:- Acute myopathy (eg. polymyositis)
    3. Fatiguable muscle weakness with diplopia, ptosis and bulbar dysfunction- Myasthenia gravis (and other neuromuscular disorders)
    4. Flaccid Paraparesis with sensory level (often with reduced lower limb reflexes & bladder dysfunction)- Cauda equina syndrome
      - Thoracic spinal cord lesions (eg. transverse myelitis, spinal cord infarct)
    5. Bulbar predominant involvement- Botulism
      - Myasthenia gravis
      - Motor neuron diseases (ALS,)
      - Pontine lesions
    6. Ophthalmoplegia with motor weakness:- Miller-Fischer variant of GB syndrome (areflexia)
      - Botulism & Tick paralysis
      - Myasthenia gravis
    7. Prominent autonomic dysfunction- Guillain-Barre syndrome
      - Paraneoplastic Syndromes
      - Organophosphate toxicity
      - Botulism

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